Biographical Sketch of Charlotte (Mrs. Edward N.) Breitung

Biographical Database of Militant Woman Suffragists, 1913-1920

Biography of Charlotte (Mrs. Edward N.) Breitung, 1871-1936


By Clare M. Sheridan, retired librarian, American Textile History Museum, Lowell, MA (now closed) with the assistance of Loraine B. West, retired educator, Pavilion, NY

1) Donor to the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (CU); 2) Chair of the Michigan Branch of the CU and member of the National Committee/Michigan (later National Committee of State Chairmen/Michigan), November 1915-July 1916; 3) member of the Advisory Council of the CU/NWP (later the National Advisory Council) from New York, January-July, 1915 and then Michigan, July- October, 1915 and again August 1916-June 1917.

Mrs. Edward N. Breitung (the former Charlotte G. Kaufman) was born in Marquette, Michigan about 1871 (date varies 1871-1876) and died in New York City, July 11, 1936. She was most active in the suffrage movement from 1915 to mid-1917 as a financial supporter of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (CU) founded in 1913 by Alice Paul; it merged with Paul's National Woman's Party in March 1917. She was chair of the Michigan Branch of the CU and member of the CU's National Committee (later the National Committee of State Chairmen) from November 1915 until July 1916. Both before and after she held this position, she was on the CU/NWP's Advisory Committee (later the National Advisory Committee) from 1915 to mid-1917 (with a gap while Michigan state chair), representing first New York and then Michigan (she maintained residences in both states).

Charlotte came from a background of great wealth made primarily in iron ore mining in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. This explains the arc of her life, her marriage, social position, and her vulnerability to several family scandals that punctuated her life. Like many women of wealth, her participation in the suffrage movement was less as an activist and more in the realm of financial support and committee work both in Michigan and New York City. What is surprising is that she chose to affiliate with Alice Paul's more radical CU/NWP rather than the more mainstream and conservative National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) aligned with the Michigan Equal Suffrage Association (MESA). Her family background, her life as a New York socialite, and her WWI activities provide an interesting backdrop to the type of upper-class women who involved themselves in politics, the arts, social welfare, and suffrage. This biography includes some family details of interest to historians of Midwest history, and provides details about Michigan's participation in the suffrage movement.

Charlotte was the daughter of Samuel Robert Kaufman (1837-1900) and Juliette Graveraet Kaufman (1841-1915). Samuel was born in Bavaria and died in Marquette, Michigan. He came to the United States in 1850 and then Michigan in 1853. He was a prominent merchant of ready-made clothing and men’s furnishing goods in Marquette. In 1861 he was elected sheriff of Marquette County, served as a Justice of the Peace, and was also a delegate to state Democratic conventions. He married Juliette Graveraet, born in Michigan, and sister of Robert J. Graveraet, one of Lake Superior's earliest pioneer settlers who developed the iron resources of the county and represented the Upper Peninsula as state senator. The Garveraets were from the Netherlands and settled in New York State in the 1600s. Isaac Graveraet came to Detroit in 1772. The family was one of the first white settlers between Detroit and Mackinac. Charlotte's great uncle, Henry Garret Graveraet and his son, Garret A. Graveraet, part Native American (Anishinabek), were both killed in the Civil War in 1864. Garret led Company K of the first regiment of Michigan Sharpshooters composed of 23 enlisted Native Americans; he was a teacher, musician and landscape painter.

Samuel and Juliette had eleven children: six sons (Nathan, Samuel, David, Bernard, Louis, Harry) and five daughters (Sarah, Charlotte, Miriam, Callie, Maude). Charlotte's brother, Louis Graveraet Kaufman was a prominent banker and on the Board of General Motors. His brother, Harry, was involved in iron ore and mining and was partner in E.N. Breitung & Co., and later president of the Congress Hotel Co. of Chicago. The Kaufman and Breitung families became entwined through marriage and business. Brother Nathan handled the elder Breitung's business and finances until his (Nathan's) death in 1918. Nathan married the widow of the elder Brietung in 1893, and became the stepfather of his sixteen-year old son, Edward N. Breitung, who married Nathan's sister, Charlotte, the subject of this biography (thereby becoming her step-father-in-law). Nathan also served as mayor of Marquette, built city hall and was president of the savings bank.

Edward Breitung (1831-1887), father of Edward N. Breitung, was born in Schaldau, Germany. Trained as a mining engineer, he emigrated to the United States after the revolution of 1848-49. He moved to Detroit in 1851 and by 1864 was engaged exclusively in iron-mining operations. One of the pioneers of the Upper Peninsula, he was one of the wealthiest men in Michigan worth $4-7 million. He was active in state Republican politics. After his death, his widow, Mary C. Paulin, married Nathan Kaufman as mentioned above. Breitung Township in Minnesota and Breitung Township in Dickinson County, Michigan are named after him.

Edward Nicholas Breitung (1871-1924), Charlotte's husband, was educated as a mining engineer and owned mines in the Iron Range, the Southwest and Latin America. He was also involved in shipping and was president of several banks. Already a millionaire, he married Charlotte Kaufman on November 16, 1892 when they were both 21. The U.S. Census of 1900 had them residing in both Marquette and Washington DC. The couple had one child, a daughter, Julia Marie (or Juliet). Charlotte was a member of the Chicago Woman's Club from about 1911 through 1920 and appears to have maintained her Midwest social and political connections even when living in New York City.

By 1911, the Breitungs had a residence in New York City (first at the St. Regis Hotel, then at 16 East 76th St., and later at 1060 Fifth Ave.) where Charlotte became part of a circle of wealthy socialites interested in social and philanthropic work. Society magazines described her as "amiable" and "statuesque with a magnetic presence." The entry for Charlotte Kaufman Breitung in the U.S. Biographical Cyclopedia of American Women (1924/25) says the following:

[Mrs.Edward N. Breitung] is a noted figure in New York on account of her benevolence, as there is practically no charity in the city which she has not assisted. She has spent much time abroad, especially on the continent, where she studied industrial and social service movements. . . . she wished to be considered always as the student and helper, while she works for the common good . . . . she is a firm believer in what may be called indirect philanthropy. Early in her residence in New York, she established an unique reputation as the promoter of artistic uplift in practical and unostentatious ways . . . . helping young people of talent to secure their education and special training. It was her pleasure to surround herself with young artists, musicians, and writers . . . and arrange hearings for them with influential people. She was firmly opposed to the idea that talent can best develop under adverse circumstances. [No mention is made of her support for suffrage.]

As early as 1912, she frequently appeared in newspapers (with a photo) publicizing her charitable work: funding an impoverished street singer in his operatic career (1913); bringing special gifts to the (tenement) choristers of the free school of Italian singing (she is described as a "very rich and fashionable society woman from uptown, known as 'The Madonna of the Arts'"(1916); donating every article for sale at the National Allied Bazaar in Boston (1916); supporting the work of the Vacation Association, an organization of factory girls (1917); chair of New York States's Serbian Child Welfare Association of America (1921); supporting two theatrical benefits for the Milk for Children of America Fund (1920), etc.

Charlotte's interest in the suffrage movement can be traced as far back as 1911 when it was reported that she hosted a "parlor talk" by Mrs. Ida Husted Harper in her home on the subject of woman's suffrage (Washington Post, March 26, 1911) However, Charlotte's "active" participation in the suffrage movement can be tracked primarily on the masthead (and in a few Michigan related articles) in issues of The Suffragist, the weekly newspaper of the CU/NWP, founded by Alice Paul on November 15, 1913. (The paper ceased publication after the 19th Amendment was passed, but was reconstituted in 1923 as Equal Rights until its end in 1954).

On March 28, 1914, The Suffragist reported that Charlotte gave $500 towards the "$50,000 Fund for Securing Passage of the Federal Suffrage Amendment." In December, The Suffragist described a meeting of the CU Advisory Council at the home of Mrs. O.H.P. Belmont (Alva Belmont) to consider and adopt a plan of work for the coming year. Alva Belmont, one of New York's wealthiest women and notorious for her divorce from William Vanderbilt, was an unabashed supporter of suffrage. A member of the Executive Committee and Honorary President from 1921 to her death in 1933, she gave enormous sums of money in support of suffrage and women's rights (Kops; Lunardini). "The small gathering was a brilliant and distinguished one" of women prominent in social and civic work and included Mrs. Florence Kelley, Mrs. John Dewey, Mrs. Harriott Blatch, Mrs. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Mrs. Mary Beard, Mrs. Crystal Eastman Benedict, Mrs. Breitung, et al. "The work of the new organization is to forward the Bristow-Mondell Federal Suffrage amendment known as the Susan B. Anthony amendment which gives the vote to the women directly by act of Congress as opposed to the Shafroth-Palmer Federal amendment which makes State as well as Federal action necessary [supported by the rival NAWSA]." They pledged $3,000 (The Suffragist, December 26, 1914). On April 1, 1915, the New York Times reported that Mrs. Belmont gathered representatives from 24 states, and the CU for Woman Suffrage formally became a national organization. At the same time, the new national CU repudiated NAWSA and advised all of its member to give up their membership.

In January 1915, The Suffragist reported that Mrs. Edward Breitung of New York and Mrs. Thomas F. Walsh of Washington DC had officially joined the Advisory Council of the CU. Both are "close personal friends of Alva Belmont who is a member of the Executive Committee of the Union, and it is through her that they have become actively interested in the work for the Susan B. Anthony amendment. Both of them are brilliant women of culture and ability with a wide executive experience in social and philanthropic work, and their active interest and participation in suffrage is welcomed heartily by all suffragists." In March, Mrs. Breitung donated another $500 to the cause and $100 in September. From January 23 to July 24, 1915, Charlotte was listed on the Advisory Council from New York; however, from July 31 until October 16, 1915 she represented Michigan. A Michigan branch of the CU had been organized in July with Margaret Fay Whittemore as organizer, and a headquarters established in Detroit (Caruso). Their activities were reported in the September 25 issue of The Suffragist. Then Charlotte's position in the CU took a significant turn. On May 29, The Suffragist reported that "Mrs. Breitung of Michigan and New York assures Miss Paul that she will give her assistance to the organization of a convention of the CU in Michigan. She will leave New York next month. Mrs. Breitung's assistance will be of immense value to the advancement of federal work in Michigan." Moreover, the same issue reported that Charlotte was scheduled to speak at the CU's Virginia state convention on June 10 with Mrs. Belmont and Lucy Burns! The conference of Michigan suffragists was planned for October 1-2 in Detroit, and the call for the conference was signed by "Mrs. Breitung of Marquette" among others (The Suffragist, October 9). At the conference, Mrs. Breitung was chosen as chairman of the Michigan branch of the CU. This was confirmed in a report from Michigan in the October 23 issue where she was listed as chair and finally on the November 13, 1915 masthead of The Suffragist where she was listed as a member of the National Committee (from Michigan), a much smaller group and seemingly more influential. Reports from Michigan in The Suffragist continue to show a host of activities throughout the state including a demonstration to welcome the CU's transcontinental automobile campaign when it made a stop in Detroit. On the program for the CU'S first National Convention in Washington, DC (December 6-13, 1915), Charlotte gave a report as Michigan's State Chairman (Evening Star, Washington DC, December 9, 1915). To add to the CU's presence in the nation's capital, the New York Times reported in August that she "will take a large house in Washington and add much to the social side of the suffrage campaign. Her home will be a favorite gathering place for society women . . ." This see-sawing between New York and Michigan (and sometimes Washington) is not surprising since the Breitungs appear to have returned to the Midwest fairly frequently for business and social reasons, and they continued to maintain a "summer" estate in Marquette.

In the February 12, 1916 issue of The Suffragist, the National Committee became the National Committee of State Chairmen with essentially the same number of people and the Advisory Council became the National Advisory Council. The April 15, 1916 issue of The Suffragist, reported that Mrs. Edward Breitung, Michigan's state chair, contributed $497 towards the "Fund for Securing the Passage of the Federal Suffrage Amendment" (she was the second highest donor with Mrs. Belmont topping at $1,800). Due to illness, Charlotte did not go on the CU tour of the "Free States" in April, but she did contribute $2,000 (Grimes). However, in the July 29 issue of The Suffragist her name disappeared from the list of the National Committee of State Chairmen, replaced by Mrs. (W.) Nelson Whittemore as acting chair (Margaret Whittemore's sister-in-law). As of the August 5 issue, Charlotte reappeared as a member from Michigan on the National Advisory Council and held that title until the June 9, 1917 issue of The Suffragist. In October, she contributed $500 to Mrs. Belmont's Campaign Fund. In December 1916, the second annual convention of the Michigan Branch of the CU was held in Bay City. Mrs. Whittemore was elected chair of the Michigan branch of the CU. Miss Anne Martin, chair of the NWP, was the main speaker and she explained their policy of holding the [Democratic] party in power responsible for denying justice to women. The December 9 issue of The Suffragist reported contributions and expenditures of the Woman's Party during the last election campaign (all contributions over $100 were required to be listed separately).This was the first financial statement in America of a woman's party to be presented to the government. Mrs. Edward Breitung, a Republican, was listed as having contributed a total of $5,000.

In February 1917, Charlotte participated in a mass meeting of the CU organized by Alva Belmont at the 48th St. Theatre in New York City (New York Times, February 28). In March, the CU and NWP merged into one organization. In April, Michigan and several other states enfranchised women (in part) by passing presidential suffrage bills in their state legislatures. Charlotte remained listed as a member of the National Advisory Council from Michigan on the masthead of The Suffragist until the June 9 issue when her name disappeared from any further issues (except for a letter dated July 17, 1918 that may have been old stationery). In June 1919, Michigan ratified the Susan B. Anthony amendment, one of the first to do so.

Charlotte's seeming abandonment of the suffrage movement after mid-1917, is best explained by her almost frenzied support for the war effort. Although WWI began in 1914, the United States did not enter until April 1917; the war ended on November 11, 1918. For Alice Paul, how one dealt with the country's entry into the war was a personal decision. "Those who wish to work for preparedness, those who wish to work for peace, Paul said, can do so through organizations for such purpose. Our organization is dedicated only to the enfranchisement of women" (Lunardini). In Charlotte's case, however, her wholehearted support of the war effort may have been colored by two family scandals that occurred in 1915. The first was reported in The Guardian (London) in January when Mr. Edward Brietung of Marquette, Michigan purchased a German steamship docked in an American port, making it subject to seizure on the high seas by the British. One British authority said that he saw little to prevent German-Americans from buying German ships at bargain prices and then sailing them to Germany where they can be transferred to their former owners or their allies. Eventually the ship was seized by the French government after it had been sent to Germany with a cargo of cotton. The second scandal occurred in October 1915 when Max Breitung, a cousin of Edward N. Breitung, "Michigan millionaire," was charged in an alleged conspiracy to blow up ships carrying munitions to the allies (The Daily Gate City (Keokuk, IA). It is not inconceivable that Charlotte felt that it was her duty to squash any rumors of her family's support for the Kaiser (her husband does not seem to have participated in any of her wartime activities).

Charlotte's wartime activities began very early. She was the first American to send relief supplies to Belgium in 1914. Eventually, she gave practically all of her time to war work. In 1917, she was appointed a member of the Women's Committee of the League for National Defense by the mayor of New York and raised a fund of $100,000. She gave eight ambulances to the government for use in France, one with x-ray equipment costing $15,000. She was a working member of the Red Cross and donated large sums to it including creating an elaborate pageant to raise funds. She supported ambulances for those animals forced into the conflict, and supported Liberty Loan drives. She promoted seven plays raising $150,000 for the soldiers' and sailors' funds. She was founder and a hostess of the Sailors' and Marines' Club and Athletic Field on Riverside Drive, a rest and recreational facility. Another canteen of which she was the founder was the Michigan headquarters for soldiers and sailors, the first state club to be started in New York. She purchased musical instruments and athletic equipment for the forces, free milk for Italy and France, and gave to relief for blinded soldiers and sailors. Her home in Versailles, France, was turned into a hospital for French and American soldiers (Biographical Cyclopedia of American Women).

Charlotte's name, nonetheless, appeared a little too often in the news, although she seems to have weathered all of the major and minor scandals of which there were several including an attempt by a psychopath to blow up her husband's office at 11 Pine St. in New York City, and then their home at E.76th St. The first major scandal occurred in 1913, when her 19 year old daughter, Juliet, was reported to have eloped with a gardener, Max Kleist, who worked at an estate adjoining the Breitung's in Marquette. They were secretly wed in New York with the Breitungs denying the story at first. Juliet, almost immediately, returned to her parents’ home at the St. Regis Hotel, and the bridegroom was whisked off to work in an Arizona mine owned by the Breitungs. The parents sought to annul the marriage, but Kleist returned to New York and sued the Breitungs for $250,000 for alienation of affections. Kleist lost the lawsuit. Juliet obtained a Reno divorce and remarried twice (Daily News (NY); Philadelphia Inquirer, et al).

The second major scandal (ironic for a supporter of women's rights) occurred in 1921 when Charlotte's husband was picked up in a disorderly house in the company of two young women to whom he had given $25. The women were arrested by detectives unfamiliar with the newly amended New York law which aimed to make the man in the case suffer for a crime against morality equally with the women, and they let Breitung go. But when the detectives told their story of the raid in the Magistrate's Court, Jean Norris, the only woman magistrate in New York, instantly called attention to the amendment (passed two years prior but never enforced) and demanded that an effort be made to punish Brietung along with the women. Accordingly, a warrant was issued for him, and the man whose fortune was rated at $18 million was taken into custody as a vagrant (People v. Breitung). Charlotte was photographed by multiple newspapers enduring the humiliation of seeing her multimillionaire husband being the first man arrested under the new law. Edward maintained that his wife "knows all about this case and has absolute confidence in me. She and my family are sticking by me" (Daily News (NY); Philadelphia Inquirer; New York Times, et al).

At the end of the war (November 1918), Charlotte did not appear to have resumed her activities in the woman's movement (the NWP went on to work for an Equal Rights Amendment). As much as 2/3 of NWP members dropped out of the organization once the vote was won (Lunardini). It was not until 1927, that her name appeared in an issue of Equal Rights where she was listed as a patroness for the Institute of the Woman's Theatre, Inc. in New York City. The plans of the Institute included the production of plays and revue skits written by women with the ultimate aim of building a Woman's Theatre.

In 1924, her name appeared on the seating list for a "Dinner to the Distinguished Women Visitors to the Democratic National Convention" at the Hotel Commodore in New York City (Schlesinger/Papers of Emma Guffey Miller). After the death of her husband in 1924, Mrs. Breitung took over his various banking and shipping interests that had become insolvent due to wartime losses, and she "put them in a prosperous state . . . ." (Obituary, Philadelphia Inquirer). According to the New York Times obituary, "His [Edward's] widow, although without business experience . . . spent five years supervising the varied interests of the Metals and Commerce Company of New York. She stated publicly that she liked business life and would never again be content with a purely social existence" At the time of her death she was Vice-Chairman of the Women's Division of the "Landon for President Committee" (Obituary, New York Times). Alf Landon was a liberal Republican candidate in the 1936 election; he was defeated by Roosevelt. She died in 1936 at the home of her brother Louis in New York City and was buried in Marquette. Her obituaries noted that the Italian government and the League of the Allies honored her for her services to the Italian Red Cross and other war work. No mention was made of her suffrage activities.

A photograph of Mrs. E.N. Breitung is available at the Library of Congress website:


Biographical Cyclopedia of American Women. 2 vols. Detroit: Gale Research, 1974. Originally published in two volumes. Vol. 1 Compiled under the supervision of Mabel Ward Cameron, published by Halvord Publishing Co., 1924; Vol. II: Compiled under the supervision of Erma Conkling Lee, published by Franklin W. Lee Publishing Corp., 1925. (available on Gale's Biography and Genealogy Master Index and

Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-2005 ( Re: Edward Breitung.

Bruno's Weekly. Edited by Guido Bruno. January 1, 1916, vol. 2, no. 1. Article "Among Our Aristocrats."

Caruso, Virginia Ann Paganelli. "A History of Woman Suffrage in Michigan." PhD diss.: Michigan State University, c. 1986. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI

Equal Rights, Vol. 14, Issue 37 (Oct. 22, 1927), p. 290. (microfilm: Schlesinger Library, Harvard University).

Find a Grave: Samuel Kaufman; Juliette Kaufman, Louis Graveraet Kaufman, Robert J. Graveraet; Sgt. Henry G. Graveraet, Mary C. Paulin

Flexner, Eleanor. Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States. New York: Atheneum, 1972. (references to Michigan suffrage movement)

Gerritsen Collection of Aletta H. Jacobs.

Grimes, Lucia Isabelle Vorhees. History of the Suffrage Movement as Related to Michigan and Detroit. Detroit: Cass Technical High School, [c. 1968]. Listed on Hathi Trust Digital Library but not available to public as it is still under copyright. Selected pages were provided by the Detroit Public Library (Burton Historical Collection) at the request of the Medford (MA) Public Library. Grimes was active in MESA and the CU but resigned from MESA when NAWSA insisted that a person could only belong to one of the organizations.

Harper, Ida Husted. How Six States Won Woman Suffrage. New York: National American Woman Suffrage Association, 1912.

Graveraet Family Page, submitted by Jim Lalone, June 2009 (Michigan Family History Network).

Historical Newspapers, Birth, Marriage & Death Announcements, 1851-2003 ( Re death of Edward Breitung (The Marion Daily Star (Marion, Ohio), March 5, 1887.

History of Woman Suffrage. Vol. III [LINK] (1876-1885), Edited by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony and Matilda Joslyn Gage. Rochester, N.Y., Susan B. Anthony, 1886; Vol. IV [LINK] (1883-1900), edited by Susan B. Anthony and Ida Husted Harper. Rochester: Susan B. Anthony, 1902; Vol. VI [LINK] (1900-1920), edited by Ida Husted Harper, N.p.: National American Woman Suffrage Association, c. 1922.

Jackson Citizen Patriot, MI, March 24, 1914. (re: Juliet Breitung)

Kops, Deborah. Alice Paul and the Fight for Women's Rights: From the Vote to the Equal RightsAmendment. Honesdale, PA: Calkins Creek, 2017.

Library of Congress: Conference program

Lunardini, Christine. Alice Paul: Equality for Women. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2013 (Lives of American Women, Carol Berkin, series editor).

Marquette County, Michigan: Biographies (GenealogyTrails: Finding Ancestors....) htp:// (re Edward N. Breitung).

Michigan Marriage Records, 1867-1952 ( Re Charlotta (Charlotte) G. Kaufman.

Miller, Tom. "Daytonian in Manhattan: the stories behind the buildings, statues and other points of interest that make Mahhattan fascinating. The Moncure Robinson Mansion, No. 16, East 76th St." June 5, 2014. (contains information about the Breitungs)

New York Times, April 1, 1915, p. 24 ("Women Organize New Suffrage Move")

______, August 1, 1915, p. 15 ("Women's Eyes on Congress")

______, Feb. 28, 1917, p. 10 ("Women to Voice Protests: Congressional Union for Suffrage Holds Meeting Today"

______, Sept. 22, 1921, p. 15 ("Edward N. Breitung Held as 'Vagrant'")

______, July 12, 1936, p. 87 ("Mrs. E.N. Breitung, Executive, is Dead") (see also under Obituaries):
The Saint Paul Daily Globe, Nov. 17, 1892 ("...necklace presented by a Michigan Young Man to His Bride")
Washington Post, March 26, 1911 (Mrs. Ida Husted Harper has begun new series of lectures on suffrage....")
The Tampa Tribune, Jan. 21, 1913 ("Rare Singer on Street")
The Tampa Tribune, April 17, 1914 (re Juliet Breitung)
The Guardian (London), Jan. 13, 1915 (re British shipping interests/WWI)
Passaic Daily News, April 23, 1915 ("Mrs. Kleist in Court to hear Hubby's Story")
The Daily Gate City (Keokuk, IA), Oct. 27, 1915 ("[Max] Breitung arrested...")
Kingston Daily Freeman, Kingston, New York, Nov. 9, 1915 (re seizure of ship by French)
Evening Star (Washington D.C., Dec. 9, 1915) "Suffragists Make Personal Appeals; Delegates to Convention of CU Engage in 'Field Work'"
Boston Globe, Dec. 12, 1916 ("'Belgian Day' a Great success...")
New-York Tribune, Jan. 17, 1917 ("Factory Girls Delighted at Paderewski Concert")
New-York Tribune, May 9, 1920 ("Two Plays to Aid Milk for Children of America Fund")
Daily News (NY)), Jan. 25, 1921) (re Serbian Child Welfare Association of America)
Daily News (NY), July 31, 1921 ("Raiders Find Banker....")
The Philadelphia Inquirer, Oct. 30, 1921 ("Millionaire Breitung's Surprisingly Lively Summer")
Detroit Free Press, Vol. 90, no. 6 (Oct. 3, 1924) ("E.N. Breitung...Dies in New York")

Obituaries/Mrs. Edward Breitung: New York Times, July 12, 1936; Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln), July 12, 1936; St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 12, 1936 (; also Obituary Index which gives Charlotte's birth as "about 1876."

Shier, Quita V. Warriors in Mr. Lincoln's Army: Native American Soldiers who Fought in the Civil War. True Directions/Universe (iUniverse, Bloomington, IN) ebook/google

Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Harvard University: The following collections contained miscellaneous material including letterheads relating to Michigan and CU activities: Papers of Margaret Foley; Papers of Emma Guffey Miller; Mary Earhart Dillon Collection; Papers of Grace Allen Johnson; Papers of Mary Dennett; Papers of Sue Shelton White.

The Suffragist. Issues cited above: VOL. II, 1914: Iss. 13, (March 28); Iss. 52, (Dec. 26). VOL. III, 1915: Iss. 4, (Jan. 23); Iss. 12, (March 20); Iss. 22, (May 29); Iss. 37, (Sept. 11); Iss. 41 (Oct. 9); Iss. 43 (Oct. 23); VOL. IV, 1916: Iss. 15 (April 15); Iss. 31 (July 29); Iss. 42 (Oct. 14); Iss. 50 (Dec. 9); Iss. 51 (Dec. 16). See Gale Nineteenth Century Collections Online or Chadwyck Gerritsen Collection for online copies.

Tichelaar, Tyler R. My Marquette. 2010 (e-book). Excerpt "Nathan Kaufman and the Breitung Family"

U.S. Census ( 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930 (re Charlotte Kaufman Breitung; first and last names often misspelled and dates of birth vary).

Wikipedia: The Suffragist

Zahniser, J.D. and Amelia R. Fry. Alice Paul: Claiming Power. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

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