New York City was home to conventions in antebellum America much as it is now. Reform associations of all sorts met annually or semi-annually. The city's daily newspapers avidly covered these meetings from gavel to gavel. This was as true for Democratic papers, such as the Herald and the Times, both vigorously opposed to anti-slavery, woman's rights, and temperance, as it was for the Whig Tribune.
Partisan loyalty shaped editorial policy and, in the case of The Weekly Herald, a compilation of the stories published in the daily edition, the headlines and sub-headers. Readers did not need to read the editorials to know the paper's position. But, as a comparison will demonstrate, the three New York papers strove for factual accuracy. This is due, to some degree perhaps, to a growing sense of professionalism as newspapers became more popular. It is almost certainly also due to the highly competitive nature of journalism. Papers followed each other's handling of stories very closely and very critically.
LUCY STONE'S TEMPERANCE CONVENTION
Horace Greeley and the Bouquet Man,
&c., &c., &c.
A gathering of the disciples of the Maine Liquor Law in general, and of Lucy Store in particular, took place at Metropolitan Hall on Thursday. There were present between one thousand and fifteen hundred persons, comprising, as the call of the convention invited, all classes, sects, color and sexes--short clothes and long clothes, black and white, strong minded and weak minded, and orthodox and heterodox, all amalgamated together, in sublime and temperate harmony. The great new lights of the age and the revolutionirers [sic] of society were fully represented. Among those present were Horace Greeley; Francis D. Gage, of Ma.; Mrs. C. H. Nichols, Rev. Antoinette L. Brown, P. T. Barnam, Miss Lucy Stone, C. C. Burleigh, Susan B. Anthony, (with bloomers on,) Dr. Trall, &c.
The meeting was called to order a little after 10 o'clock in the morning, by the Rev. T. W. Higginson, who moved the appointment of a temporary chairman. By the
Mrs. [sic] Susan B. Anthony was elected temporary secretary.
The following committee was then appointed to nominate the permanent officers of the convention:--
Rev. Joseph Dugdale of Pennsylvania.
K. L. Snow, of New York.
Sidney Pearce, of Pennsylvania.
Mr. M. A. Johnson, of Rhode Island.
Pauline W. Davis, do.
Caleb Clark, of Connecticut.
C. C. Shoales, of Wisconsin.
This committee then retired to deliberate, and during its absence the President called upon Mr. C. C. Burleigh, of Philadelphia, to address the convention. In coming forward, he said he had no intimation that he should be called upon to make a speech; still, through his regard to the cause, he would attempt to address them upon the great question for which they had assembled. He said a temperance convention like this was a necessary enterprise for the furtherance of the temperance cause--all engaged in the temperance cause, without distinction of age, class or color. It ought to be high toned in its source, and if so the temperance cause must triumph.
When Mr. Burleigh had ceased speaking, the President pro tem read the following report of the Committee appointed to nominate permanent officers:--
Rev. Thos. Higgenson [sic], of Massachusetts, VICE PRESIDENTS.
John Pierpont, Mass.,
C. J. H. Nichols, Vermont,
P. T. Barnum, Conn.,
Horace Greeley, New York,
Asa Fairbanks, R. J.,
Lucretia Mott, Penn.,
Catharine M. Severance, O.,
W. Wolcot, New Jersey.
Edward Webb, Delaware,
Richard B Glazier, Mich.,
Francis D. Gage, Missouri,
L. M. Booth, Wisconsin,
H. S. Tilton, Mississippi,
D C. Wheeler, California,
T. Goldsmith, Canada,
W. H. Ashurst, England.
Mrs. S. B. Anthony, N. Y.,
Mrs. C. B. LeBaron, N. Y.,
C. M. Burleigh, Penn.,
D. H. Vaughn, R. I.,
Mary Jackson, England.
The report was adopted unanimously, and the above mentioned declared elected the permanent officers of the convention.
At the invitation of the CHAIRMAN pro tempore, those officers present took their seats upon the platform. When all were seated, the President,
Rev. Mr. HIGGINSON said--In commencing the discharge of the duties you have assigned me, I must say that I consider it an honor to preside over such a meeting as this. I am glad to see so many faces are present, coming here, as they have, for the formation of the great purposes which we have in view. I shall gather strength from your countenances, in the performance of the duties which you have bestowed upon me. I have not come here in restrain you, but merely to carry out your wishes; therefore, if amity and good will is not the ruling principle of our meeting, then you have chosen poorly in the election of your presiding officer. (Applause.) I see that you will restrain yourselves, and that I have an easy work before me, and I shall try to perform my duties as I best may. I am glad we have met here to day. Let us understand the purposes for which we have met together. I have heard from some lips, since I came into this hall, that which instructs me that the object of this convention is not fully understood. This is not a woman's rights convention; it is merely a convention in which woman is not wronged, and that is enough. (Applause.) It is a world's convention, which known no distinction between sexes, or conditions, or colors, or tongues, or society, but a meeting for the benefit of all. I am glad to see it composed largely of women. This is a temperance convention, in which particularly, women ought to take part, and show and express her interest. These who first provoked a world's convention, were asked how they dared to come out in such a convention, and invite the whole world, and Brobably injure the temperance cause. We, who were the prime movers of the undertaking, answered that the temperance cause demanded that we should not stay in. We have come out here in a body together, and we are strong. We are not like the boy who went out to row in a boat, and thought that one oar would serve his purpose --because is appeared to him if he pulled along one side, the other must follow as a matter of course. In this way he rowed round and round, and accomplished nothing. Unlike him in launching our craft upon the waters, we have mated her with two oars and in man and woman, we have them here. Woman has always exercised a great
While the President was speaking, the Bouquet Man, desirous to turn the affair to some use, and always on hand when there is probability of a sale, walked upon the stand, with both arms full of roses, and distributed them around the table on the platform, in the amusement of some and annoyance of others. Such was the dignity of his step and the familiarity of his actions that strangers mistook him for some of the most polite and kind of the Vice-Presidents, who had taken this opportunity to beautify the stage with flowers. His particular pains, however, to so arrange his roses as to appear to the best advantage gave the knowing ones to understand that the flowers were in the market. When the President had closed, all doubt as to the aims of the trademan was made manifest by his immediately striking up an oration in behalf of life roses. The President looked discounted, the bloomers were disdainful, but the indefatigable tradesman proceeded:--
The orator then sat down among the Vice-Presidents and reformers, and placed his eyes upon his roses, perfectly satisfied with himself for the important blow he had given to intemperance, and at the same time the publicity he had given to himself, to his trade and wares; But flowers were not in demand, and he remained sale possessor long after the meeting adjourned.
The PRESIDENT then called upon the Rev. Thos. Goldsmith, of Canada, who delivered a prayer.
Upon motion, it was then revolved that a committee of five he appomisd to report measures to be brought before this Convention.
Upon such committee were appointed. Horace Greeley, at New York; C. E. Sholer, of Wisconsin; Lucy Stone, of Massachusetts; C. C. Burleigh, of Connecticut; and Harriet K. Hunt. of Massachusetts.
Also, a roll committee, charged with keeping a correct list of the names and residences of the members and delegates present, was then
D. S. Whitney, Mass.,
C. H. Le Baron, N. Y.,
O. C. Burleigh, St.,
D. C. Bloomer, N. Y.,
Edward Webb, Del.,
Mrs. L. N. Fowler, N. Y.,
E. W. Carron, Mass.,
Dr. Washington, N. Y.,
J. P. Hutchins. Ct.,
H. M. Rhodes, N. Y.,
W. G. Hubbard, Ill.,
Mrs. Vaughan, Ohio.
After the appointment of these committees, the President said as they would be some time engaged in their deliberations he thought it would be appropriate to set the affair to music, and therefore called upon the Amphion Glee Club to sing. This band, composed of three gentlemen and one lady, appeared upon the stage and sang "The Good Time Coming," with much delight to the audience. Being enthusiastically encored they again came before the meeting and sang "We Come from Distart Region." &c. with equal satisfaction.
Rev. ANTOINETTE L. BROWN, who is destitute of that impotant appendage of all strong minded women and divines--the pants--next addressed the audience. The reverend gentlewoman is a great favorite with the temperance part of the community, and was of course received with tremendous applause. Regarding this demonstration as a matter of course, the eloquent divine proceeded to deliver her address. As many of our readers have never been a female minister, it may not be out of place last to give a brief sketch of her personal appearance- Well, then in the first place, the Rev. Mrs. Brown is one of the best specimens of that strange species of human beings who have of late years broken out of the sphere for which they were destined by nature, and who have aspired, not only to the stations occupied by the sterner sex, but to the important privilege of wearing the nether garment already mentioned. She has a very pleasing expression of face, and a remarkably sweet and musical voice. Her style of speaking is occasionally forcible, abounds with figures, and very seldom wearies the listener. Unlike the generality of temperance speakers of both sexes, she scarcely ever indulges in anecdotes to illustrate her arguments, but instead thereof she embellishes her speeches with quotations from Scripture--very natural that for a divine. Our reverend orator dressed very neatly, but unfortunately there is nothing in her style that marks the profession to which she belongs. In that "good time coming," (we wish they would fix the day,) it is to be hoped some plan will be devised by which the female members of the ministry may be distinguished from the laity. In speaking she gesticulates very little, never hesitates for a word, but flows on without let or hindrance, except, of course, when interrupted by the applause of her audience. This, reader, is the portrait of Rev. Antoinette L. Brown. How do you like the picture? Without stopping to pay compliments, or say that she had been called on unexpectedly--a trick for which we presume she has a proper contempt--she proceeded at once to the subject before her. Her speech was rather long for publication in full, so we are necessarily compelled to give a synopsis of it. Thus she began:--
A whole world temperance! Room on our broad platform for everybody, Parthians and Medes, the dwellers in Mesopotamia, Jews and Romans! Here the revarend speaker went into an enumeration of various nations, displaying a wonderful knowledge of the details of geography. Strange to say, however, nearly all the inhabitants of those countries were wofully ignorant of the call of the Convention, or they exhibited a most lamentable disregard of the benefits which it is predicted will flow from it. The audience was composed mainly of ladies, not one of whom, we venture to state, ever dwelt in Mesopotamia, while very few ever passed the boundaries of our own country. So, there were no delegates from Media, now Rome nor Persia, for there, alas! the Maine liquor law is unknown. But let us hear the fair orator further. All these may come here, she continued, and speak in their own tongues in behalf of this great reform. It is more than a World's Temperance Convention, for here women are allowed the privilege of speaking. Teetotalism may here be discussed in its length and breadth; but not a word about woman's rights, on peril of reprimand and expulsion ever from this platform. This may be
This was a word of encouragement for the strong-minded women, who are ambitions of being Presidentes see, sea captains, voters, and everything but what they were intended for--women. After this piece of consolation, Rev. Mrs. B. informed her audience that the dawn might be here, but the sun was not yet up. Not a word, she added, about any one's right to vote, even in favor of the Maine law, although one-half the world is disfrenchised, and the other half contrive to have a license, with the exception of a few spots in heathendom and a few Yankee States. Not a word about all this or a woman's owing service to her intemperate husband, and his right to spend her earnings for his grog. Do not let it be known that the father has the legal right to the custody of his children, though he be a drunkard or that he may take them away from their mother and apprentice them to ignorance, vice and the rum-seller, as a security for his grog bill. Not a word, I say, about all this for what have women to do with these things! The world will tell us that the drunken man may talk upon various subjects, although he may be so stupid and what he says so incomprehensible that you could no more expect to gather a whole idea from his speech than to collect the whole of the particulars of a cabbage from the heterogeneous mess of a stew. (Laughter and applause.)
After a few more words on this point, Rev. Mrs. B. gave a very graphic sketch of the miseries produced by drunkenness, and then concluded as follows:--There have been bad laws, bad statutes, before this, which we are trying to get repealed; they have had their origin in human selfishness, in frendish malignity. We wish to leave something better in their stead. There is a thick darkness yet; but the light is breaking around us; we are gathering strength and power, and the voice of God is whispering everywhere about us--"Take courage and be strong, for the course of your race is onward and upward."
The reverend speaker resumed her seat amid much applause, after which--
HORACE GREELEY addressed the meeting. He expressed himself strongly in favor of the enactment of the Maine law, not withstanding what had been said about the difficulty of enforcing it. If it were once passed he had no doubt that it would lead to the suppression, in a great degree. He thought a great many were made drunkards from want of employment; for while waiting for it they not unfrequently passed thair time in rum shops. For this reason he considered strikes had a tendency to injure the tradesman. After some further remarks in support of the Maine law, he read the following
1. Resolved, That the cause of total abstinence from all that may intoxicate--whether considered with regard to the magnitude and virulence of the evils it combats, to the good it has already achieved to the work which it has still to do, or to the power of the selfish interests and depraved appentites which it combats and must vanquish--deserves the warmest sympathy and the most active, devoted support of every servant of God, ever lover of humanity.
2. Resolved, That it especially behooves the Christian church, in all its divisons and denominations, us also every other religious organization, to co-operate with all its might in the great work of temperance reform, by the diffusion of light and truth with regard to the nature and affects of alcoholic liquors, by the enforcement of total abstinence as a part of its imperative discipline, and by the restraining of all whom it may influence, all who recognize its authority, from any participation in the guilty gains of the liquor traffic.
3. Resolved, That the manufacture and sale of alchoholic beverages, in view of the moral certainly that they will be used, nine times in ten, to the injury if not the ruin of their consumers; is an immoral and destructive business, in which no one who recognizes the obligation of love to God and men can henceforth engage without guilt; and we do most earnestly entreat those involved in it to ponder well their steps, and ask themselves this question--"Is the business of a distiller, a brewer, a rumseller, one wherein I ought to be willing to live and content to die?"
4. Resolved. That the State should be everywhere and to the extent of its ability a guardian of the weak, a protector of the assalted, an admonisher of the beguiled and tempted, among its citizens or subjects--that it should ever revere and conform to the Divinely prescribed supplication, "Lead as not into temptation, but deliver us from evil"--and that there is no position toward the liquor traffic which it can consistantly and worthily maintain but that of declared and uncompromising hostility.
5. Resolved. That the fundamental, undeniable scientifically demonstrated fact, that alcohol is a poison, of itself suffice to prove that it ought not to be presented in such forms and combinations as will tend to disguire its character and blind the uninformed to its baleful potency; but should always be sent forth from the drug store and the chemical labratory, where alone it should be sold, either pure and undilated, or in such combinations as do not disguise its deadly properties and do not tempt a depraved appetite or a reckless desire for novel sensations; for, since Satan is only perilous to the peace and happiness of Eden when disguised, it is a crime to assist him in disguising himself
6. Resolved. That we impeach the use of fermented or alcoholic wine in the solemn celebration of the Eucharist as a profane and impious desecration; since that which poisons and destroys men can be no tree symbol of that which purifies, restores and saves; and we challenge the current assumption that wine devoid of alcohol is unattainable in a country where the grape grown so profusely, and in an age when the resources of chemistry are so abundant as in ours, as founded in the grossest ignorance, the most indedent heedlessness, or the most flagrant dishonesty.
7. Resolved, That while all well directed efforts to reclaim the unfortunate victims of intemperance to virtue, self-respect, usefulness and happiness, should receive our ready and ardent co operation, it is nevertheless a truth not to be concealed that drunkeness is a crime--that no father, husband or son, no mother, wife or daughter, has any moral right to be a drunkard; and that they who are such are deserving of sympathy only in common with the libertine, harlot, gambler, thief, burglar, robber and assassin.
8. Resolved, That ample experience has demonstrated, what the prescience of
9. Resolved. That human laws should in all things be based upon and conform to the sovereign law of God as summed up in those divine injunctions, "Love God with all thy heart and thy neighbor as thyself" and "Do unto others as you would that others should do unto you;" and therefore the licensing of man to sell intoxicating beverages is irreconcilably at way with any just ideas of the nature, functions and code of government, as will as with that bigger law which bids us "Have no fellowship with the untrustful works of darkness, but rather reprove them."
10. Resolved. The Maine law, so called, is superior to all preceding assetments respecting the liquor trade, in that it consistently and explicitly fobids all traffic in intoxicating beverages as such, makes the rumsellor's liquor and implements of trade conclusive evidence of a fuller intent to sell, instead of requiring specific proof of a particular,
11. Resolved. That the cry, "The Maine law is ineffectual," if raised entirely by those who never desired, or at least never tried, to have it otherwise; while we have abundant evidence in the hostility and alarm of our adversaries, as well as in the direct testimony of friends, that the law does work a gratifying
12. Resolved. That we do most earnestly entreat our follow-citizens friendly to the temperance cause, in voting for law makers, is subordinate all partisan or other considerations to the securing of Legislatures that will enact, uphold and from time to time improve, laws of prohibition, regarding that as of infinitely greater consequence than anything else likely to be affected by the manner in which their votes are this year cast.
13. Resolved, that the representatives of the temperance cause imperatively demand the immediate and rapid multiplication of temperance tracts, more elaborate essays, and charts illustrating the effects of alcohol on the human system; and we therefore call upon our publishers, booksellers and periodical assets, to issue or purchase such tracts, essays and charts, in infinite variety, and limitless abundance, pledging ourselves to promote their circulation by every means within our power.
14. Resolved, That in the prosecution of the temperance reform we are datermined to know no distinction of creed, caste or sex--if section, party or condition--but to fraternize thoroughly and act cordially with all who in heart and life, by word and deed, prove themselves worthy and earnest champions of total abstinence.
15. Resolved, That we respectfully and affectionately exhort all who receive as truth the sentiments expressed in these resolves, to live and labor in consistency therewith, and to lose no time in forming or perfecting organizations calculated to ensure efficiency to their efforts, and triumph to their cause.
Sevaral letters were then read by the Presidents after which Mrs. Mary Jackson, of Wakesield, England, was introduced. He said that she attended the Convention as the delegate of five different English temperance societies, and that she had labored in the cause for the last twenty years. Mrs. Jackson is a middle aged lady--her exact age, of course, we would not venture to conjecture--and is certainly a very effective speaker. Like Rev. Mrs. Brown, she has a good voice and knows how to use it, while her general appearance strikes one at first sight very favorably. She is about the medium height. Her self possession, like that of our female orators, is remarkable--however, twenty years service ought to give her some confidence in her own powers. Her pronunciation is marked by a peculiar accent; but this is rather pleasing than otherwise, and, to our mind, is anything but a defect. It is almost unnecessary to say that Mrs. Jackson was not dressed in the Bloomer costume, the English ladies being somewhat behind ours in the great cause of woman's rights.
When the applause with which this lady was received had subsided, she spoke as follows:--Dear friends, I feel very glad to
The speaker proceeded at considerable length in this strain, and concluded by relating two anecdotes and reciting a very long piece of poetry on the beauties of temperance.
The venerable Rev. RICHARD B. GRAZIRS, of Michigan, next spoke. He said the cause for which we have met is a great one. I trust we shall make our mark. I have labored some in the heat of the day of temperance, and am now going in the decline of years, and must soon leave it for others more young and strong. My first desire is to promote the cause of temperance while health and vigor last. I come from a western State, and probably most of you know what temperance has done for us there. While I stand upon my feet I will allude briefly to the past. I remember when I was a boy it was the custom to associate all kinds of labor with liquor. I have drank it myself; but, thank God, a great change has now taken place. I was one of the first reformers in this cause. I was born in this city. but I have been removed away so long that I feel a stranger among you now. In our State we can bosst of something that perhaps no other State can; we have never strangled man between heaven and earth. (Applause.) I mention this because it is more or less connected with the temperance cause. And while I live, and can "make my prints to summer sands and winter snows," I will give my strength to this cause. (Applause.)
The Amphions then gave another song, "The Noble Law of Maine." and the meeting adjourned till half past 7 o'clock P. M.
At half past seven in the evening, about the same number having assempled in the building as in the morning, Lucy and her forces appeared upon the stage. The company came in, Lucy leading the vanguard, as she marched along, the looked "every inch a king."
The proceedings were opened with a song from the Amphions.
The President then introduced the Rev. Thomas Goldsmith, of Canada, West. He said--You will expect but little from the rude country from which I come. I shall not, in the remarks I have to make, stop to point out the various evils of intemperance and the various phases of misery which spring from this curse. The injury from the use of ardent spirits is not sufficient to urge against the use of these spirits as a beverage. The question is, is it right, to use them? And if a man should ask me if he had not a right to eat and drink as he pleased I should answer, certainly, but if he should ask me if he had not a right to get drunk I should say no, you have no right to do it. There is claimed by the heathen a moral right to throw themselves beneath the car of Juggernaut; but we know that no such moral right exists. All the feelings of humanity are abhorent to such transactions, and no more than they ought to be to the miseries of intemperance. I like this spirit of amalgamation, and hope like a tornado it will sweep on until the flood of cold water covers the whole extent of our land. (Applause.) We will charge the expense of our paupers and lunatics and ruined men to the rumseller. As the use of rum creates all these burdens upon society they should be charged to the source from whence they spring. (Applause.)
P. T. BARNUM followed. He spoke as follows:--I met a friend on my way here to night who said all sorts of
At the conclusion of Mr. Barnum's humorous remarks, Miss LUCY STONE, who may justly be called the oraton of the evening, was introduced to the audience, by whom she was received with the warmest applause. Miss Stone was dressed on this occasion as she always is, in the plainest and neatest style. She wore a striped silk dress, the skirts of which reached a little below the knees, leaving the distinctive bloomer pants visible. For the gratification of the curious in such matters we may state here that Miss Stone does not wear them gathered in at the ankle, after the Turkish fashion. She never wears any jewelry, and her head is never set off with any kind of headdress, her hair falling straight upon her shoulders, except a small lock on each side, which is
At the calls of the audience Horace Greeley made a few remarks. He called upon all to do what they could for the promotion of the Maine law at the ballot box aed through every other available medium.
The "Amphions" then sang the "Temperance War Song." after which the Convention adjourned till to-day at 10 o'clock, A. M.
At ten o'clock the temperance forces arrived on the groond, refreshed, and ready for another vigorous attack on the opponents of the Maine law. The attendance was not so numerous as that or the day previous; but there appeared to be no lack of enthusiasm, and those who were present appeared to be as hopeful as ever. We regret to state that our suggestion as to the propriety of electing the Bearded lady from Switzerland to preside over the meeting, was not attended to. We thought that Miss Lucy Stone would have complied with our recommendation, and that the rights of the Bearded Lady would be presented by her to the consideration of the Bloomers, and strong minded women generally. It was certainly a great piece of neglect; and, after the handsome things we said of Miss Lucy yesterday, we had a right to expect that our suggestions would be attended to. It is to be hoped, however that the next World's Convention will do justice to her.
After the meeting was called to order, the President read the resolutions which were presented the day before, and which were published in our report of that day's proceedings.
MR. BARNARD, of Pennsylvania, then addressed the meeting. He said that he understood it to be the duty of the religions organizations of the land to co-operate with the temperance men and women in the advancement of this cause. I consider this to be a self-evident truth, which may be admitted without demonstration, in as much as the action of the religions bodies of a different character is disirable. I have desired that all who are members of those religious organizations should compare their acts with those of the Great Founder, and act in accordance with his teachings and example. You are all aware that his life, from the cradle to the grave, was devoted to doing good; and the churches that bear upon their forehead the name of Christian, if they are walking in the footsteps, are indeed worthy of the title; but if they act otherwise they cannot justly lay claim to it. I feel that they are false to their name. I stand here as one of a delegation from a religious organization which has given its support to this cause, and I call upon all religious denominations to follow their example, and the example of Christ himself, By doing so they would feel as he felt--that it is their meat and drink to do good, to build up the right and throw down the wrong; and if they have not his conduct in view, and act not an accordance with the principles they profess, they are not only recreant to their profession. but they are worse--they are hypocrites. Mr. Bernard dwelt at considerable length on the necessity of the different religious denominations taking part in the efforts of the temperance people to procure the passage of the Maine law.
The meeting was next addressed by Rev. W. HENRY CHANNING, who has rendered himself conspicuous among that peculiar school of would-be philosophers called transcendentalists. There is nothing particularly remarkable in Mr. Channing's appearance, except that he is thinner than most men, and looks as if he had lived on Graham bread all his life. Mr. C. has gained an undying notoriety by some poems which he published four or five years ago, the most prominent characteristic of which was the difficulty of understanding what they meant. We recollect two lines of one of them--a love tale--which may serve to give at once the character of the whole:--
"How worn out the old church service is!
I wonder that some people do not hiss."
Mr. Channing is a rev. gentleman, but there is nothing in the style of his cross which denotes the profession of which he is a member. He is evidently one of those who scorn the use of such distinctive marks, rather preferring the singular in this respect than conform to long established custom. In size, he is neither long nor short, being about the medium height; but he is decidedly a very thin man. Like the rest of the class to which he belongs, he has a remarkable stock of self confidence, an indispensible requisite, certainly, in a public speaker. His voice is pretty good, and his general manner of delivery superior to the generality of the male portion of the orators at this convention. To sum up all Mr. C.'s various qualifications in brief, we may say, that he is a poet, a philosopher, a cold water drinker, a transcendentalist, a divine who evidently thinks "the old church service" a humbug, an abolitionist, a woman's rights man, and, perhaps, a vegetarian; but for this we will not vouch. We only judge from his physical appearance. If you can imagine all these various isms personified in one man, you will have a tolerably correct idea of Rev. William Henry Channing. Well, Mr. C. having been introduced, addressed the audience in substance as follows:--The song of our friend, (referring to the song of Mr. Clarke,) had reference to intemperance. Is not this a sign that the flood is abating from the face of the earth? that the dove has gone forth on its mission from the ark and returned with the olive bough? Now according to my view, the dove is typical of woman, and the olive bough is her word of peace and power. The characteristic of this collection I would briefly sum up in three words--and let it not be considered that I am irreverent in speaking to of our great ancestress--it is the disappearance of Mrs. Adam, and the re-appearance of Miss Eve--the reappearance of woman as she came from the hand of her creator. (Applause.) It is the free, unrestricted co-operation of man and woman; and whereas, in the first place, she may have been considered typical of the fall, so is she now typical of the resurrection of man; as she was once, so to speak, an angel of death, to drag him to the dust, she is now an angel of heaven, to lead him upward. This will give you the whole tone of the principles on which I will speak, for if there is anything characteristic to me in this convention, it is that women are here recognized as a part of the world, and as, having as right to be heard. It is said that this meeting should have a character of practicality; and as I think it should, I have some practical propositions to offer. The first thing I desire to do is to bring the prohibitory law into operation; and that we may be able to do this, it is necessary that we should have the co-operation of women in enforcing its execution. It is absolutely necessary, if we would make it effective, on the part of the community, that she should give her full co-operation and her example in making it effective. She is more conscious of its influence on society than man can be: and what we want is, that she should bring her power to bear upon man, who stands as her representative and agent. It becomes her to see that her agent does his duty. As a mother, wife, sister, friend, she must see that he acts his part bravely as a man. You recollect the anecdote of the sister in our Revolution, who sent her brother to the defence of his country, with the strong conviction that he would prove faithful to his duty. Well, so should every woman send forth her brother, her son, her husband, and her friend, into this great struggle, to fight the great fight manfully. With regard to expressing a sentiment, the true mode is to present it in the form of a declaration of action instead of a petition. I would that woman should ask herself, has she a right to vote, and whether she has not the right to bring out the full force of her conscience upon this question. I would like to see women voting to the primary assemblies, and there declaring their will whether this law shall be passed or not. So much as regards the mere passage of the law. Now, in relation to its execution. It is sometimes asked whether the prohibitory law, having been successful for a period, can be continued so; but it depends upon women to answer this question.
Mr. CHANNING next spoke of the necessity of substituting some kind of social amendment and enjoyment for the unhealthy excitement and stimulus produced by rum. He concluded by presenting the following.
Resolved, That we urge our fellow citizens to petition Congress to to-modify our tariff laws that they shall no longer protect and justify the importation of intoxicating liquors into States which have prohibited, or may hereafter prohibit the sale and diffusion of such liquors.
Resolved, That a natural, proper, and efficient counteraction to the appetite for debasing indulgences and pernicious excitement, is to be found in providing for all legitimate and healthfull sources of pure, innocent, and elevating plessures, of social and spiritual enjoyment and, therefore, the library and readingroom, the lyceum and music hall, galleries of paintings and sculpture, social assembly rooms and pleasure grounds, should take the place of the barroom and the rum seller.
Resolved, That sound political economy concern with sound morality in condemning the manufacture, sale, and use of intoxicating drinks, since their cost to the consumer exceeds the actual part of their production, in a proportion five times as great as obtains in the case of useful articles; therefore, if the money spent for alcoholic beverages were devoted to the purchase of articles of utility, the present extravagant profits of distillers and rumsellers would be employed in cherishing legitimate branches of productive industry, which give to the labor bestowed upon them five times as great a proportion of their price as now goes to the labor producing alcohol.
Resolved, That the officers of this meeting, together with its Business Committee, he constituted a permenant committee, with power to call future conventions, based on the same principles as this, whenever and wherever they deem it advisable to do so, and to initiate any other measures which they may judge best for the advancement of the temperance cause.
These resolutions were referred to a committee, by whom they were slightly amended and presented at the afternoon session.
Rev. Mr. DUGDALE, of Pennsylvania, the next speaker, said--With bowels of compession for the inebriate, upon this occasion I desire to announce to this audience the formation of a religious body, the papers of which, expressive of its aims and porceses. I hold in my hand. This body is called "Progressive Friends." The reverend gentleman then read from a pamphlet the principles of this society, being firm against intemperance and in favor of the Maine law.
A gentleman then called for a song from Mr. Clark. This gentleman, apparently much frightened, came upon the stand, and after singing a cold water song, he closed by drinking in cold water, the following toast:--
"Here is to the man that cut down the trees, that cleared the land that raised the corn that fed the goose that shed the quill that wrote the pledge of total abstinence from all intoxicating liquors."
Mr. A. BUFFUM here made a few remarks, and introduced a resolution, which was approved of by the audience.
The Revd. Mr. WHITNEY then said--I desire to say a few words upon the manner in which men become drunkards. There are three things in nature obnoxious to the taste of mortal men--alchohol, tobacco and opiates. At first taste, the great mass of mankind refuse them; they are nauseating to all pure, natural appetites. But by degrees they grow more and more agreeable. A man uses a little amount, and at first he does not like it. A little more use, and it is pleasant; a little more still, and it is desirable; and thus, by degree, at last it has its victim under the foot.
[A gentleman here called the speaker to order, as not speaking upon the resolutions before the convention. The President said the resolutions were open for general discussion and declared the speaker in order.]
The speaker proceeded--And, as I was saying when interrupted, alcohol gradually triumphs over man's appetites; and when it tempts the man's nature to destruction, it gives him, with the pleasure it bestows, the high. The real pain will come in all who indulge in champaigne. I am known at home as a session laborer. I don't meddle with other people's business, or with the rights or desires of my neighbors. We, in Massachusetts, have a Maine law, but we can't enforce it. That may appear a strange fact; but we may turn out the rum and throw it in the gutter--but there is more in Boston. You ask me how do they evade the law! Why, a man makes a great party and invites his friends, who pay him an admission fee of one dollar or so, and then they carouse and drink what they please. If you take the alcohol from them they will tell you they suppose they have a right to treat their friends with hospitality; and who can deny them that right? [A gentleman in the gallery here asked the speaker why the Maine law could not be enforced in Boston.] I will answer to that question, what I have said often before, that where public sentiment is against a law, it will not be enforced. A law to be carried out must be popular. The sentiment in large cities is not in favor of this law, and consequently in these places it cannot and will not be enforced.
A voice from the gallery asked the speaker if he voted for the Maine law.
Mr. O. JOHNSON, of New York, from the audience, said he was opposed to this socratic mode of argument. He was opposed to questioning the speakers while they were upon the stand.
The CHAIR explained.--All the interruptions of the speakers have been with their own content, and if they are willing to answer questions put to them, the chair has no right to interfere. But if any speaker gives intimation that he does not want to be interrupted, the chair will sustain him in his desire.
Mr. WHITNEY proceeded. This questioning don't interrupt me in the least. I will say in answer to the question asked me, that I did not vote at all. In respect to voting, my own conscience must be my guide. If others wish to vote for temperance, let them do so; but my own vote must be left to my own judgment.
A motion was then passed limiting the speeches of the morning to fifteen minutes time. After order had been restored, the chair came out to explain the temperance law in Massachustts, which had been alluded to by the last speaker.
The CHAIR said--I wish to make a few remarks in regard to the Massachusetts temperance law. The question was asked a short time ago whether Massachusetts likes and sustains the law. I have only to answer to this question, ask the citizens of Massachusetts to repeal that law, and then you will see whether they are in favor of it or not. (Applause.) The Massachusetts law differs from any other temperance law in existence. It is, therefore, difficult, in cities and large places, to establish this law and enforce it at the outset. This law has now been carried to the Supreme Court of our State, to decide whether a police magistrate has a right to act in these cases. There is a great conflict of opinion or impression in the State is this--that the police courts have jurisdiction, under the Maine Liquor law, and when there facts are established, then look out for scattering among the rum sellers, (Applause) The Maine law is like the boy's pistol--it don't go off of itself, but it wants help to set it to going. I won't speak of Boston; I dont live there. Boston is a commercial city; millions there are involved in the liquor traffic. Do you tell me you can execute the Maine law in large cities like this? I hope you may; but you will have a hard time of it. But, regardless of the opposition to this law, let us push it onward, and, in the language of David Crockett, "be sure you are right, and then go ahead." (Applause.)
Mrs. NICOLLS, the editress of a paper in Vermont, was introduced to the audience with much eclat. She was not dressed a la Bloomer. In size Mrs. H. is rather above the medium height, and we should say is about thirty or forty years of age, and perhaps a little more; but as we have before intimated, we do not like to be particular on such matters. She wears short ringlets, and dresses with much taste, so far as our limited knowledge of such matters will permit us to judge. Her voice is rather weak, but it is pleasing, and her tone is very impressive. She made a pretty good temperance speech, but much too long for publication. It the conclusion of her address, a motion was adopted in favor of adjourning at half past 1 o'clock.
Mrs. Vaughn, the President of the Woman's State Temperance Society of New York, was then introduced. This society has long been established, and exerts a great influence in the temperance cause. The position and standing of this society was attributed in a great message to Elizabeth P. Stanton, its first President, and Miss SUSAN B. Anthony, its first Secretary. Its fair secretary, during her connection with it, was indefatigable in her efforts to give it influence and power, and through her great personal attractions, genius, and zeal, she was greatly successful.
Mrs. VAUGHN said--I shall be obliged to make the request, on account of my weak voice, that the audience will be as quiet and still as possible. My province has been to work more by the pen than by the tongue, and with it I have been able sometimes to make myself heard. As the President of the Woman's State Temperance Society I ought to say something of what we have done. We have been laboring for the Maine law in this; we have held conventions, we have presented petitions, we have applied to politicians, and we have thought that we were right in to doing, and right in our opinions. The right to vote is withheld from us women, and therefore we must appeal to the voters to do what they in their conscience think is right. We would like to have the temperance sentiment which has sprung from the women of New York spread over the whole bread world. We want to have it understood that our work is the advancement of temperance--that it is our right, and if we cannot on our own behalf urge self-sufferings then we urge the sufferings of our sisters, and ask that they may be protected in all the affections which cluster around the fireside. It is not for the women of New York alone we work, but the women of the world. (Applause.) And I would also plead for its men of the world, that they may be free from this curse. (Applause.) This temperance reform lays at the basis of other reforms. Our society is laboring for this reform, and all over the world woman is laboring for this. And I rejoiced yesterday to bear the pioneer from the Old World, who has fought and acted with us. I desire to see the temperance women banded together someway, that they may throw their influence in the political scale for the Maine law. Let them go from house to house, if necessary, and ask each voter if he can refuse woman his protection; and when the time comes for the election I want the women to go to the polis and electioneer. I was going to say they ought to vote 300, but they cannot do it legally. In this may women can control the election; for I don't believe there is a man in this State that woman cannot reach in some way or other. We want the women to aid the men in freeing the world from this great evil. (Applause.)
Mr. WALLENTINE, of Vermont, then made a few remarks in regard to the law in that State, after which the meeting adjourned tll the afternoon.
At three o'clock the convention reassembled and was called to order soon after by the President. The lower part of the hall was not more than half filled, the larger part of the audience consisting as usual of ladies.
The first speaker was Mr. VICTOR HAVOR, who said that as they had the American aspect of the Temperance question this morning it was but right that they should now be introduced to the European. He was a German, he said, and begged the indulgence of the audience for the imperfact language in which he was compelled to address them. This however, he was determined should not be an obstacle in his way, for he was resolved that his ideas should be fully understood. These were, he continued, two principles in the world--the principles of good and evil, as represented by God and the devil, Now, all efforts to restrain the liberty of men, he considered as evil in its character and would be productive of the most disastrous results. No such efforts succeeded, or ever would. We have as many thieves in the world now as we ever had and fast in is it with the Maine law-- there will be just as many drunkards after it is passed as before it. in the old country the question of temperance has not arrived at the same position which it hall, was, that I, should address you this evening; and when I shall have gone off the stage you will believe to my sincerity when I say that I came utterly unprepared. And, my friends, nothing but a determination, while I have a will, never to turn my back upon a cause that has the commendation of my judgment, and the sympathies of my heart, has prevented me from leaving the hall before responding to this call. (Applause.) As said, I have nothing to say. Yor will permit me to give you what illustrations I may from some of the experience which I have learned during the last few days, and which now comes to my recollection as profitable subjects of thought for the occasion. A week ago to-day I was riding on a train of cars through a village of my native State. The hour was late, and the engineer began to fear that he should not make the trip in time; so he put on a little extra speed, and hurried through the village, and the result was that an old woman, eighty-five years of age, was struck by the engine and in an instant after was lifeless. It sen a thrill of borror through the whole village. Nothing else was talked of, and deep and loud were the excretions and denunciations against the company and conductor, through whose carelessness this accident happened. When I arrived in this city, and got to my office, the first letter I opened was one from this village, inquiring if such an accident as that could be committed and the law afford no remedy. Well, that is one instance; but who does not remember the catastrophe that took place on the New Haven railroad, where some fifty human beings were summoned to close their connection with the affairs of time, she enter upon the untried realities of another world? What was the result? From one end of the country to the other newspapers and politicians, and legislators, and philosophers were examining the matter to see if there could not be some mode devised to prevent such things--and if society and government would sit still and behold such things enacted by which so many lives were wantonly, ruthlessly and carelessly thrown away. It did not stop there; the legislators went to work, and the legislators of the State in which this accident occurred met, introduced a stringent bill which became a law, and the State of Connecticut has done what it could to guard its citizens from any calmnity or catastrophe that shall happen by means of a drawbridge. (Applause.) Well, now, if the wise legistature of Connecticut would ask if there is not, in the States of this, Union, a cause which summons hundreds, thousands, aye tens of thousands to their last account, it seems to me they would find out that drawbridges are not the only things from which they have to fear death within their borders. (Applause.) Whose sympathies have not been aroused? Whose heart has not bled? Whose pity has not been excited as they have dwelt upon the fearful tale which tells us of the ravages which the pestilence is making in our neigboring city, New Orleans? They are now experiencing there the visitation of the pestilence; but suppose it were told in addition to this, that there were to be found in New Orleans a set of men who waxed fat and grew rich by selling to the inhabitants an article of food which was found to be the fruitful source of the yellow fever, would you give any money for the aid of the sufferers and affliated till the authorities had done what they could to put down those who caused that pestilences? Is there not another pestilence compared with which the yellow fever is as nought, and is not this pestilence destroying its victims, not only in the heat of summer, but in the cold of winter? The citizens of New Orleans are rejoicing in the hope that as the summer pasess away the epidemic will go away on the winds of heaven. But there is another pestilence that knows no season, that knows no climate or locality; it strikes its victims in the crowded haunts of man, end pursues him to his home in the forest. It strikes him in the heat of summer; the cooling winds of autumn bring no refuge from its attack; but in all seasons and climes it goes forth, striking its victims with a malady compared with which the yellow fever or any other plague is trifling, and may be easily dealt with by the healing art. They may find other causes--the stagnant pool and marsh--but, my friends, here is a stagnant pool which comes in the zephyrs of spring, in the faint winds of summer, in the cooling breath of autumn, aid in the fiercness of the winter tempest. It comes at all times; it never ceases, and while your ingenuity, and sympathy, and pity are appealed to to do something to assuage these minor evils, why is it, my friends, that is relation to this great evil, which is the fruitful parent of them all, you are silent, helpless, and dumb? Is it not time that that active sympathy which inquires into the cause and seeks for a remedy of every other evil that afflicts man should turn their attention to this parent of all of them? When we hear of deeds of philanthropy which have characterized past ages and the present it is said that this is the greatent discovery of philanthropy since the discovery of vaccination. It was a great triumph of the healing art, a discovery of that simple process by which the ravages of a loathsome disease might be stayed. But if so, with what higher success should be he crowned who shall discover an antidote to that disease compared with which the smallpox and yellow fever do not deserve to be mentioned. If I understand the friends of temperance, they profess to have found it in the practical application of their motto--"Touch not, taste not, handle not impure things" Well my friends, I don't propose to go into the details of this subject this evening. I came up in obedience in your call, to let you know that my heart is with you, and that it is a cause upon which I am not willing at any time to turn my back. Last and least of all, Mr. President, will I turn any back upon it bacause you have invited your wives, and mothers and sisters here. (Great applause.) Surely, my friends, surely if this be such a work of philanthropy as I have described it, it is entitled to the sympathies of woman, and it is not meet that she who was "last at the cross and first at the sepulchre" should stay her hand here. (Repeated applause.) Let this cause be taken up and carried forward in that way which shall command itself to the best judgment of us all. It is a field of philanthropy as wide that we may all work in it without jostling each other. With there remarks I well leave you, and will not trespass any longer upon your patience. Indead I am sure I owe an apology for addressing you upon the subject of temperance, standing as I do in the preserce of John Pierpont (The speaker here sat down amid great applause.)
Col. E. L. SNOW next took his turn. The Colonel remarked that when he looked round and saw Mr. Pierpont and Wm. Loyd Garrison he thought of times gone by. He remembered when he was a rum seller; but times had now much changed. We now had the freedom of speech, which was fought for in the days of the Revolution. The speaker continued, recommending the future celebration of the Fourth of July by all boys and girls; and, sick or swim, survive or perish, he wished them to go for the Maine law.
When the speaker sat down, there ware loud cries for GARRISON, Coming forward, he said--He was glad of the Maine law, because it was an evidence of moral progress. It is impossible to give a full expression for the temperance cause at the ballot box. For instance, I am disfranchised for conscience's sake, because I don't believe in the pro slavery part of the constitution, and, therefore, if I vote for a man who swears to support the constitution I vote for a man in opposition to my concience. I am as a abolitionist--by the help of God I hope to dia an abolitionist. [A long expression of approval and disapproval here took place by stamping and hissing. It was finally conceded the abolitionists had the day.] Therefore, we could not present a full front politically to the enemy. Well, what then? Why, all who can vote without sacrifies of conscience let him vote for the Maine law, and those like myself who feel themselves distranchised, let them give an account to God for their actions, and if they feel they are right let them go on, no matter what men may say.
It was then moved and carried that inasmuch as Mr. Carson was absent, he be invited to make a synopsis of his league for this Convention.
Loud cries for "Stone, Stone," then came from all parts of the audience. In obedience Lucy Stone came forward. She wore upon this occasion a black gauze dress over white petticoate, a la Bloomer. This became her very well, and she came forward at the close of her Convention as if to say a parting word to her followers. She said:--My friend who has just sat down said that he was disfranchised for conscience sake. But we women are deprived of the right to vote by whigs, democrats, and all, who rank women, fools and idiots as unfit to vote I am not going to make a long speech at this late hour of the night. Let us give our head, and heart and hand to this cause, until the last rum shop is shut up, and the landlord will be ashamed to rent his building for a rum hole. We stay lose in personal reputation for a time for our devotion to this cause, but there is a treasure richer than rubies and jewels--the wealth of a consciousness of right. I hope the time will come when with a diamond will be written in the drunkard heart the firm principles of temperance. We can't afford not to be temperance men and women. We break webs in the thread of life. I wish Emerson was here to tell the beautiful figure of the broken web of the factory girl. When she breaks the web the employer traces it up, and charges it to her account, and then, Emerson asks, will not the Almighty find a broken web in our life in the day of judgment.
The resolutions of the Convention were then adopted as a whole unanimously.
Thanks were then returned to the singers, the reporters, and the President.
Notice was then given that Rev. Antoinette Brown would preach in Metropolitan Hall at half-past ten o'clock on Sunday next.
The meeting then adjourned,