How Did Florence Kitchelt Bring Together Social Feminists and Equal
Rights Feminists to Reconfigure the Campaign for the ERA in the
1940s and 50s?

Endnotes

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Introduction

1. For the National Woman's Party suffrage campaign, 1913-1920, see Inez Haynes Irwin, The Story of the Woman's Party (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1921).
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2. For more on the new coalitions of mid-century American feminism, see Serena Mayeri, "How and Why Was Feminist Legal Strategy Transformed, 1960-1973?" a document project on this web site.
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3. Lynn M. O'Leary-Archer, "The Contentious Community: The Impact of Internecine Conflict on the National Woman's Party, 1920-1947" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, 1988), p. 197.
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4. For a concise history of the wording of the ERA, see Jo Freeman, "What's in a Name? Does it matter how the Equal Rights Amendment is worded?" http://www.jofreeman.com/lawandpolicy/eraname.htm (June 1996).
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5. See, for example, Barbara Stuhler, For the Record: A Documentary History of the League of Women Voters (Westport: Greenwood, 2000), pp. 174-80.
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6. Danelle Moon, "A Pocket of Quiet Persistence-—in the Age of the Feminist Doldrums? Florence Kitchelt and the Connecticut Committee for the Equal Rights Amendment, 1943-1961," Connecticut History 45:2 (2006): 201-28. See also Kitchelt's biography in the finding aid to her papers at the Schlesinger Library, online at http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~sch00668.
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7. Moon, "A Pocket of Quiet Persistence," p. 204.
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8. Moon, "A Pocket of Quiet Persistence," pp. 209-11.
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9. The literature on this issue is vast. See, for example, Vivien Hart, Bound by Our Constitution: Women Workers and the Minimum Wage (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994); Dorothy Sue Cobble, The Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), pp. 2-4; and Moon, "A Pocket of Quiet Persistence," pp. 208-09.
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10. Patricia Ward D'Itri, Cross Currents in the International Women's Movement, 1848-1948 (Bowling Green: Bowling Green Popular Press, 1999), pp. 152-54. For dates and places of meetings of the International Alliance of Women, see Leila J. Rupp, Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women's Movement (Princeton: Princeton University press, 1997), p. 74. For Margery Corbett Ashby, see Cheryl Law, Suffrage and Power: The Women's Movements, 1918-1928 (London: Tauris, 1997), p. 143.
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11. D'Itri, Cross Currents, 155-56. See also "Women's Congress Cheered by Gifts," New York Times, 24 Feb. 1930; and "Women Victorious in Equality Fight at Montevideo," New York Times, 17 Dec. 1933.
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12. "Foe Tells Views on Women's Pact," New York Times, 21 Dec. 1933. This story also mentioned that the league's victory was brief since when President Franklin Roosevelt learned about American opposition to the treaty, he immediately instructed the delegation to support it.
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13. For Eleanor Roosevelt's part in the replacement of Stevens by Winslow, see Paula F. Pfeffer, "Eleanor Roosevelt and the National and World Woman's Parties," Historian, Vol. 59, no. 1 (Fall 1996): 39-59. See also Diane Elizabeth Hill, "International Law for Women's Rights: The Equality Treaties Campaign of the National Woman's Party and Reactions of the United States State Department (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1999); and Louise Young, In the Public Interest: The League of Women Voters, 1920-1940 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1989), pp. 63-69. For New York Times coverage see "Progress at Lima Hailed by Women," New York Times, 3 Feb. 1939; "Envoy Contests Winslow Choice," New York Times, 3 Feb. 1939; "Hostility Arises Over Removal of Miss Stevens," New York Times, 19 Feb. 1939; and "Latin Union Acts on Stevens Issue," New York Times, 3 March 1939.
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14. "Twelve Women Leaders Agree World Cooperation Is Vital," New York Times, 1 April 1943.
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15. For more on Kitchelt's joining the NWP, see O'Leary-Archer, "Contentious Community," pp. 193-98.
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16. For more on Kitchelt's dissent, see O'Leary-Archer, "Contentious Community," pp. 195-96.
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17. Leila J. Rupp and Verta Taylor, Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 116.
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18. For the Industrial Women's League for Equality, see Rupp and Taylor, Survival in the Doldrums, pp. 47, 151-52.
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19. "Hails Honor Given Dean Gildersleeve," New York Times, 15 Feb. 1945. The San Francisco meeting had been scheduled by a previous meeting at Dumbarton Oaks in October 1944 of representatives from China, Great Britain, the USSR, and the United States.
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20. For the chronology of Eleanor Roosevelt's activities, see Allida Black, ed., The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers: Vol. I: The Human Rights Years, 1945-1948 (Detroit: Thompson Gale, 2007), pp. vii-xxiv.
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21. Pfeffer, "Eleanor Roosevelt and the National and World Woman's Parties"; and Black, Eleanor Roosevelt Papers, pp. 329-31.
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22. For the mobilization of American women in support of the creation of the United Nations, which preceded Gildersleeve's appointment, see Judy Barrett Litoff and David C. Smith, eds., What Kind of World Do We Want: American Women Plan for Peace (Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 2000). For Gildersleeve, see Rosalind Rosenberg, "Virginia Gildersleeve: Opening the Gates," in "Living Legacies: Great Moments and Leading Figures in the History of Columbia University," Columbia Alumni Magazine (Summer 2001), accessed online at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/alumni/Magazine/Summer2001/Gildersleeve.html; and Notable American Women. Gildersleeve was the only woman appointed to the U.S. delegation that helped write the United Nations Charter in San Francisco in February, 1945. She helped create the Commission on Human Rights, on which Eleanor Roosevelt later drafted the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights.
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23. Judith Wellman, The Road to Seneca Falls: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the First Woman's Rights Convention (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004), pp. 235-36.
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24. For Kitchelt's growing prominence among the dissenters, see O'Leary-Archer, "Contentious Community," pp. 197-98, 260-62. For a history of this schism, see Caroline Babcock, "The NWP and ERA History," n.d. [1949], Caroline L. Babcock and Olive E. Hurlburt Papers, Box 6, Folder 93, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. See also the inventory to the Jeannette Marks Papers at Schlesinger Library.
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25. Leila Rupp, "The Women's Community in the National Woman's Party, 1945 to the 1960s," Signs 10, no. 4 (Summer 1985): 720, 729, 734-36.
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26. The words are those of Dorothy Kenyon in "United Nations Commission on Status of Women," Women's Law Journal 33 (1947): 37-38, quoted in Gwen Hoerr Jordan, "Agents of (Incremental) Change: From Myra Bradwell to Hillary Clinton," p. 80 (available online at http://works.bepress.com/gwen_jordan/1/).
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27. See Eleanor Roosevelt, "U.N. Deliberations on Draft Convention on the Political Rights of Women," Department of State Bulletin, 5 January 1953, pp. 29-32, online at http://www.udhr.org/history/124.htm, and accessed 18 November 2008.
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28. The text of the current Equal Rights Amendment is available at the web site of the National Organization for Women, http://www.now.org/issues/economic/eratext.html. Accessed 25 Sept. 2008.
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Document 2

29. Sara Hunter Graham, Woman Suffrage and the New Democracy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), pp. 139-41. See also, Herbert F. Janick, "Woman's Suffrage," on Connecticut's Heritage Gateway, accessed at http://www.ctheritage.org/encyclopedia/ct1865_1929/women_suffrage.htm, November 25, 2008.
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Document 5

30. Two versions of the flyer survive in a folder in the Anna Kelton Wiley Papers with identical substantive texts. The earlier pamphlet lists the NWP's Washington address as 144 B Street, while the later version, the one we reprint here, gives the Alva Belmont House. The NWP moved its offices into the Alva Belmont House in 1929.
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Document 27

31. See brief biographical sketch online in description of Jane Grant Papers, University of Oregon, accessed at http://libweb.uoregon.edu/speccoll/guides/women/activist.html.
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Document 31

32. Carbon copy of letter found in same folder with Document 30 and clearly responding to that letter from Ella Sherwin. Date inferred from close exchange here in the two letters.
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Document 33

33. For an insider's treatment of the internal conflict within the NWP that led to the resignations of a number of women who became Kitchelt allies in the continuing campaign for the ERA, see Caroline Babcock, "The NWP and ERA History," n.d. [1949], Caroline L. Babcock and Olive E. Hurlburt Papers, Box 6, Folder 93, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
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Document 34

34. We infer that this unsigned carbon copy in Kitchelt's Papers was written by Jeannette Marks, who sent out a good many similar letters in early April 1949 in her capacity as Acting Chair of the New York State Committee for the ERA.
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35. Her unpublished history of the dispute is in her papers. See Caroline L. Babcock, "The National Woman's Party and the Equal Rights Amendment, 1938-1946," Caroline Lexow Babcock and Olive E. Hurlburt Papers, 1906-1961, Box 6, Folder 93, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
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Document 36B

36. Katherine Devereux Blake to Jane Addams, 18 May 1935, Jane Addams Papers, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Jane Addams Papers Microfilm, reel 26, frames 1558 and 1559.
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Document 43

37. For more on Kenyon's advocacy of social justice and equal rights, see Serena Mayeri, "How and Why Was Feminist Legal Strategy Transformed, 1960-1973?" a document project on this web site, particularly documents 11 and 20.
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