How Did American and Japanese Gender Hierarchies Shape Japanese Women's Participation in the Transnational WCTU Movement in the 1880s?



   This document project examines how American and Japanese gender hierarchies and ideologies affected the transnational expansion of the U.S.-based Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) to Japan in the late 1880s by closely examining interactions among Mary C. Leavitt, a World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WWCTU) missionary, American Protestant foreign missionaries, and Japanese churchmen and women in the Tokyo-Yokohama region, Japan.

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