What Were the Origins of International Women's Day, 1886-1920?

Endnotes

Introduction

1. Temma Kaplan, "Commentary on the Socialist Origins of International Women's Day," Feminist Studies, 11 (Spring 1985), pp. 163-71.
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2. For the Eight-Hour Movement see Leon Fink, Workingmen's Democracy: The Knights of Labor and American Politics (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983), pp. 188-95. The issue of a "fair" day's wage for shorter hours continued to be contentious. See, for example, the strike of women textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, to protest wage cuts instituted by their employers when a Massachusetts state law went into effect reducing their weekly hours of labor. (See Women and the Lawrence Textile Strike, 1912 )
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3. See Robert Cherny, American Politics in the Gilded Age, 1868-1900 (Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1997) and Ellen Fitzpatrick, Muckraking: Three Landmark Articles (Boston: Bedford, 1994).
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4. See Philip S. Foner, May Day: A Short History of the International Workers' Holiday, 1886-1986 (New York: International Publishers, 1986); Ellen M. Litwicki, America's Public Holidays, 1865-1920 (Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000); Michelle Perrot, "The First of May 1890 in France: The Birth of a Working Class Ritual," in Part Thane, Geoffrey Cossick, and Roderick Floud, The Power of the Past: Essays for Eric Hobsbawn (Cambridge University Press, 1984), p. 144; Kaplan, "Commentary." For the Second International see James Joll, The Second International, 1889-1914 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975) and Paul Buhle, "Second International," in Mari Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, and Dan Georgakas, eds., Encyclopedia of the American Left (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 734-35.
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5. For more on this context in the U.S., see Mari Jo Buhle, Women and American Socialism, 1870-1920 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. 223.
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6. For more on these laws, called Vereingesetze, see Kathryn Kish Sklar, Anja Schuler, and Susan Strasser, eds., Social Justice Feminists in the United States and Germany: A Dialogue in Documents, 1885-1993 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995), pp. 33-34, 36, 90.
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7. Ellen DuBois, Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), pp. 92-101; Frances Diodato Bzowski, "Spectacular Suffrage: Or, How Women Came Out of the Home and into the Streets and Theaters of New York City to Win the Vote," New York History, 76 (January 1995), pp. 57-94.
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8. See Marjorie Spruill Wheeler, New Women of the New South: The Leaders of the Woman Suffrage Movement in Southern States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 100-32.
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9. On the WTUL, see Nancy Schrom Dye, As Equals and As Sisters: Feminism, Unionism, and the Women's Trade Union League of New York (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1980); Annelise Orleck, Common Sense and a Little Fire: Women and Working-Class Politics in the United States, 1900-1965 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), pp. 53-121.
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10. For more on Zetkin, see Jean H. Quataert, Reluctant Feminists in German Social Democracy, 1885-1917 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979); Phillip S. Foner, ed., Clara Zetkin: Selected Writings (New York: International Publishers, 1984).
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11. Kaplan, "Commentary."
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12. For more on Kollontai, see Barbara Evans Clements, Bolshevik Feminist: The Life of Aleksandra Kollontai (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979).
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13. Gisela Brinker-Gabler, "The Women's Movement in the German Empire--The Revolution Dismisses her Children," in Ingeborg Drewitz, ed., The German Women's Movement (Bonn: Hohwacht, 1983), p. 66.
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14. Buhle, Women and American Socialism, p. 223.
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15. Buhle, Women and American Socialism, p. 223.
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16. Buhle, "Second International," p. 148.
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17. Buhle, "Second International," p. 148.
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