How Did the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Campaign against Chemical Warfare, 1915-1930?


Bussey, Gertrude and Margaret Tims. Pioneers for Peace: Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1915-1965. Oxford: Alden Press, 1980. Originally published in 1965.

Foster, Carrie A. The Women and the Warriors: The U.S. Section of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1915-1946. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1995.

Foster, Catherine. Women for All Seasons: The Story of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1989.

Haber, L. F. The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

Harris, Robert, and Jeremy Paxman. A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story of Chemical and Biological Warfare. New York: Hill and Wang, 1982.

Jensen, Joan M. "All Pink Sisters: The War Department and the Feminist Movement in the 1920s." In Lois Scharf and Joan M. Jensen, eds., Decades of Discontent: The Women's Movement, 1920-1940. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983, pp. 199-222.

Moore, William. Gas Attack! Chemical Warfare 1915-18 and afterwards. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1987.

Perlen, Frida. Der Kampf der Frauen gegen die Hölle von Gift under Feuer. 1927

Prentiss, Augustin M. Civil Air Defense: A Treatise on the Protection of the Civil Population Against Air Attack. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1941.

Russell, Edmund. War and Nature: Fighting Humans and Insects with Chemicals from World War I to Silent Spring. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Schott, Linda K. Reconstructing Women’s Thoughts: the WILPF before WWII. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.

Slotten, Hugh R. "Human Chemistry or Scientific Barbarism? American Responses to World War I Poison Gas, 1915-1930." Journal of American History, 77 (September 1990): 476-98.

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Study of the Historical, Technical, Military, Legal and Political Aspects of CBW, and Possible Disarmament Measures, Volume 1: The Rise of CB Weapons. New York: Humanities Press, 1971.

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