How Did the International Ladies Garment Workers Union and Chinese Garment Workers Unite to Organize the 1938 National Dollar Stores Strike?
1. Alexander Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971).
2. Between 1860 and 1900 males outnumbered females among Chinese-born in the Uninited States on average by 20 to 1. See Shih-Shan Henry Tsai, The Chinese Experience in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), p. 40. By 1930, the sex ratio among Chinese and Chinese Americans had declined to 4 to 1 and by 1940 the ratio was 3 to 1. See Roger Daniels, Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988), p. 69.
The best treatment of changing conditions among Chinese in the United States after exclusion is found in the essays collected in Sucheng Chan, ed., Entry Denied: Exclusion and the Chinese Community in America, 1882-1943 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991). Anticipating the view that becomes apparent in the 1938 Dollar Stores Strike, these essays present Chinese and Chinese Americans as active agents responding to the pressures of exclusion.
3. On the slim vote ratifying the agreements, see Judy Yung, Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), p. 220. Yung offers the fullest recent secondary account of the strike and places it within a broader context of Chinese in San Francisco.
4. These perspectives are confirmed by the testimony of Sue Ko Lee, a Chinese garment worker who first became active in the National Dollar Stores strike. See a discussion of her reflections in Yung, Unbound Feet, pp. 220-21.
5. Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green, eds., Notable American Women: The Modern Period (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980), pp. 541-42.
6. Yumei Sun, "San Francisco's Chung Sai Yat Po and the Transformation of Chinese Consciousness, 1900-1920," in James P. Danky and Wayne A. Wiegand, eds., Print Culture in a Diverse America (Urbana: University Press, 1998), pp. 85-97.
7. "History and Background of Dispute Between Chinese Ladies' Garment Workers, Local 341, and Dollar Stores," ILGWU Collection, Labor Archives and Research Center, San Francisco State University.
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