How Have Recent Social Movements Shaped Civil Rights Legislation
for Women? The 1994 Violence Against Women Act

Document List



Prologue: Laws Governing Wife Beating, 1800-2000


Part I: The Social Movement Origins of the 1994 Violence Against Women Act

Document 1: National Commission on the Observance of Women's Year, "Battered Women," March 1978

Document 2: Judith Resnik, "Naturally Without Gender: Women, Jurisdiction, and the Federal Courts," December 1991


Part II: Congressional Hearings, 1993

A. Hearing Before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate 103rd Congress, 13 April 1993, Salt Lake City, Utah

Document 3A: Orrin G. Hatch, "Opening Statement," 13 April 1993

Document 3B: Orrin G. Hatch, "Prepared Statement of Orrin G. Hatch," 13 April 1993

Document 4A: Debra Daniels, "Testimony," 13 April 1993

Document 4B: Debra Daniels, "Prepared Statement of Debra Daniels," 13 April 1993

Document 4C: Julie Epperson to Senator Hatch, 12 April 1993

Document 5A: Diane Stuart, "Statement," 13 April 1993

Document 5B: Barbara Wood, "Statement," 13 April 1993

Document 5C: Barbara Wood, "Prepared Statement of Barbara Wood," 13 April 1993

Document 5D: Karen Nielsen, "Statement," 13 April 1993

Document 6: John Nelson, "Statement," 13 April 1993

B. Hearing Before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate 103rd Congress, 12 November 1993, Maine

Document 7: William S. Cohen, "Opening Statement," 12 November 1993

Document 8: Donna Baietti, "Statement," 12 November 1993

Document 9: Dr. Robert McAfee, "Statement," 12 November 1993

Document 10: Ruth Hodgdon, "Statement," 12 November 1993

Document 11A: Elizabeth Symonds, "Statement," 16 November 1993

Document 11B: Elizabeth Symonds, "Prepared Statement of Elizabeth Symonds," 16 November 1993

Document 12: James P. Turner, "Prepared Statement of James P. Turner," 16 November 1993

C. Hearing Before The Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate 103rd Congress, 16 November, 1993

Document 13: Judith Billings, "Statement of the Honorable Judith Billings," 15 November 1993

Document 14A: Sally Goldfarb, "Statement," 16 November 1993

Document 14B: Sally Goldfarb, "Prepared Statement," 16 November 1993

Document 15A: Eleanor Smeal, "Statement," 16 November 1993

Document 15B: Eleanor Smeal, "Prepared Statement," 16 November 1993


Part III: The 1994 Violence Against Women Act, and Challenges to Gender Bias in American courts in the mid 1990s

Document 16: Title IV-Violence Against Women, Violent Crime and Control Act, December 1994

Document 17: Judith Resnik, "Asking About Gender in Courts," 1996


Part IV: The U.S. Supreme Court Overturns the Civil Rights Provision of the VAWA

Document 18: Amicus Brief, U.S. vs. Morrison

Document 19: United States vs. Antonio J. Morrison et al., Christy Brzonkala vs. Antonio J.Morrison et al., 11 January 2000


Part V: Reactions to Morrison in 2000

Document 20: "NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund Plays Pivotal Role in Landmark U.S. Supreme Court Cases: Violence and Reproductive Rights," 2000-2001

Document 21: Division B-Violence Against Women Act of 2000, Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act, December 2000

Document 22: Judith Resnik, "The Programmatic Judiciary: Lobbying, Judging, and Invalidating the Violence Against Women Act," November 2000


Feminist Legal Scholars Use the Past to Shape Women's Future

Document 23: Judith Resnik, "Categorical Federalism: Jurisdiction, Gender, and the Globe," December 2001

Document 24: Reva B. Siegel, "She the People: The Nineteenth Amendment, Sex Equality, Federalism, and the Family," February 2002




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