How Did the National Woman's Party Address the
Issue of the Enfranchisement of Black Women, 1919-1924?

Annotated Bibliography

Alpern, Sara. Freda Kirchwey: A Woman of the Nation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.

This biography provides information on Kirchwey's life and her relationship with the progressive movements of her time, before and during her tenure as editor and owner of The Nation.
Caraway, Nancie. Segregated Sisterhood: Racism and the Politics of American Feminism. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, 1991.
This book presents a full account of racism in women's politics, but contains no information on Alice Paul.
Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
An excellent local study of African American women's club activity and political activism in North Carolina with several useful discussions of their opposition to disfranchisement.
Green, Elna. Southern Strategies: Southern Women and the Woman Suffrage Question. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.
A recent exploration of Southern white women supporters and opponents of woman suffrage with only limited reference to African American women and their voting rights.
Harley, Sharon and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn. The Afro-American Woman: Struggles and Images. Port Washington, New York: National University Publishers, 1978.
This book presents a thorough analysis of many of the issues that African-American women faced.
Hine, Darlene Clark, ed. Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. 2 Volumes. Brooklyn, New York: Carlson Publishing, 1993.
An excellent two-volume collection of biographies of African-American women. In relation to this project, there were biographies of Mary Church Terrell and Mary Talbert. Each entry also contains a bibliography to facilitate further research.
Irwin, Inez Hayes. The Story of the Woman's Party. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1921; reprint, 1971.
An insider's early account published by the National Woman's Party.
James, Edward T., ed. Notable American Women, 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary. 3 Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1971.
These biographical sketches of notable American women proved to be useful for by providing the background information not covered in other sources.
Jones, Beverly Washington. Quest for Equality: The Life and Writings of Mary Eliza Church Terrell, 1863-1954. In Black Women in United States History, Volume 13, Brooklyn, New York: Carlson Publishing, 1990.
An excellent account of the life of Mary Church Terrell, but the biographies of other African-American women were not well developed.
Lunardini, Christine A. From Equal Suffrage to Equal Rights: Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party, 1910-1928. New York: New York University Press,1986.
This book contains admirable discussion of racism within the suffrage campaign, and the author used a wide variety of sources.
Smith, Jessica Carney. Notable Black Women. Volume I. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992-1996.
As an encyclopedia of the achievements of black women, this work provided useful summaries of the lives of a variety of individuals. However, there was no in-depth analysis of any of the women.
Sterling, Dorothy. Black Foremothers. Old Westbury, New York: The Feminist Press, 1979.
This book contains brief descriptions of the lives of Ida B. Wells, Ellen Craft and Mary Church Terrell.
Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn. "African American Women and the Vote: An Overview," pp. 10-23 in African American Women and the Vote, 1837-1965. Ann Gordon, ed. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.
An overview of this collection of essays that came out of a 1987 conference on "Afro-American Women and the Vote."
Terborg-Penn, Rosalyn M. "Afro-Americans in the Struggle for Woman Suffrage." Unpublished Ph.D. diss, University of Michigan, 1978.
Despite the lack of an index, this doctoral dissertation was an extremely helpful source on the activities of African-American women in the suffrage movement.
Terrell, Mary Church. A Colored Woman in a White World. Washington D.C.: Ransdell, 1940.
The autobiography of Mary Church Terrell is full of information on Mrs. Terrell's activities for the enfranchisement of African-Americans.
Wheeler, Marjorie Spruill. New Women of the New South: The Leaders of the Woman Suffrage Movement in the Southern States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
This book described the experiences of women in the South who participated in the suffrage movement, but it did not have much information on southern racism.
Wheeler, Marjorie Spruill, ed. One Woman, One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement. Troutdale, Oregon: New Sage Press, 1995.
This collection of essays included ones by Rosalyn Terborg-Penn and Wanda A. Hendricks that explore the activism of African-American women in the woman suffrage movement and speak to the issues raised in this collection of primary documents.
Wheeler, Marjorie Spruill. Votes For Women: The Woman Suffrage Movement in Tennessee, the South and the Nation. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, 1995.
This book furnished one of the best accounts of the suffrage movement, because it described all the events that surrounded the movement. This work included an excellent depiction of the racism that black women experienced within the suffrage movement.

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